* the common cold, as shown in a case-control study involving preschool and school-age children. After being given a water-based preparation of propolis (Nivcrisol(R)) throughout the whole colds season in 1994-1995, the children had fewer cases of acute or chronic symptoms, as well as a decrease in disease-causing microorganisms carried in their upper airways (Rom J Virol, 1995; 46: 115-33).
In a study carried out in Poland, 50 people with colds treated with propolis had symptoms for an average of 2.5 times shorter duration than those who took a placebo (Otolaryngol Pol, 1989; 43: 180-4).
* recurrent genital herpes, as proven in a randomised, single-blind, controlled study of 90 sufferers. Of the 30 patients treated with propolis ointment for 10 days, 24 had healed, compared with 14 of the 30 using an acyclovir ointment and 12 of the 30 using a placebo (Phytomedicine, 2000; 7: 1-6).
* candidiasis due to Candida albicans and other species of this yeast (Mycoses, 2001; 44: 375).
* fungal skin infections (dermatophytoses) caused by Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (Mycoses, 2005; 48: 205), at least in the lab.
* liver diseases, as evidenced by a marked decrease in fatty degeneration of the liver induced by chronic alcohol abuse, at least in rats given 30 mg/kg of propolis ethanol extract (so it may not apply to humans) (Am J Chin Med, 1997; 25: 325-32). There is also laboratory evidence that propolis can promote liver-tumour-cell death (Int J Mol Med, 1999; 4: 29-32).
* rheumatic diseases, as shown in a single-blind, placebo-controlled Hungarian trial of 190 patients, who used purified propolis and propolis saturated with anti-inflammatory trace metals, respectively applied locally and by iontophoresis (where the affected joints are immersed in a conductive solution through which a tiny electrical charge is transmitted). Symptoms such as pain and inflammation were significantly improved, especially with the latter form of propolis treatment (Orv Hetil, 1996; 137: 1365-70).
* stomach ulcers, as shown by a study wherein a propolis ethanol extract prevented damage to the stomach lining (Am J Chin Med, 2002; 30: 245-54). However, this was a study in rats, so the results may not necessarily apply to humans.