* trypsin inhibitors, which interfere with protein digestion and may cause pancreatic disorders. In animals, these inhibitors led to stunted growth.
* phytoestrogens, which disrupt endocrine function, and may cause infertility in both men and women.
* potent antithyroid agents (in plant oestrogens) causing an underactive thyroid and possibly thyroid cancer. In infants, consumption of soy formula has been linked to autoimmune thyroid disease.
* high levels of phytic acid, which reduce uptake of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc.
Soy phytic acid is not neutralised by the usual preparation methods for beans such as soaking, sprouting and long, slow cooking.
High-phytate diets can cause growth problems in children.
* vitamin B12 analogues, which are not absorbed and increase the body's requirement for B12.
* fragile proteins, denatured during high-temperature processing to make soy-protein isolate and textured vegetable protein.
* toxic lysinoalanine and highly carcinogenic nitrosamines, created during soy-protein processing.
* free glutamic acid or MSG, a potent neurotoxin, formed during soy processing. Additional amounts are added to many soy foods.
* high levels of aluminium, toxic to the nervous system and the kidneys.