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Back pain treatments at a glance

About the author: 

Risk factors for chronic back pain:

Risk factors for chronic back pain:

Previous history of low back pain

Radiating leg pain

Signs of nerve root involvement

Vascular problems

Reduced straight leg raising

Reduced trunk muscle strength and endurance

Poor physical fitness

Heavy smoking

Low job satisfaction

Psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms

Heavy physical work at home or in job

Birth (or surgical procedure) under epidural anaesthesia

Most effective treatments:

Staying active

Spinal manipulation

Possibly effective treatments:

Acupuncture

Biofeedback

Group education

Hypnosis

Least effective treatments:

Bed rest

Routine analgesics

Antidepressants

Opioid analgesics

Traction

Transcutaneous electrical nerve

stimulation (TENS):

Corsets

Trigger point and ligament injections

Epidural injections


Parasites

The psychology of pain

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